Weight Loss

The definition of obesity varies depending on what one reads, but in general, it is a chronic condition defined by an excess amount body fat. A certain amount of body fat is necessary for storing energy, heat insulation, shock absorption, and other functions. The normal amount of body fat (expressed as percentage of body fat) is between 25%-30% in women and 18%-23% in men. Women with over 30% body fat and men with over 25% body fat are considered obese.

The calculation of body mass index (BMI) has also been used in the definition of obesity. The body mass index (BMI) equals a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters (m) squared. Since BMI describes body weight relative to height, it is strongly correlated with total body fat content in adults. "Obesity" is defined as a BMI of 30 and above.

There are a lot of medications for weight loss. Some of them are:

Sibutramine (Meridia) suppresses appetite by increasing the amount of neurotransmitters Serotonin and Norepinephrine in the brain synapses. Unlike Fenfluramine and Dexfenfluramine, Sibutramine does not increase release of these neurotransmitters from the cells. Instead, Sibutramine inhibits the re-uptake of these neurotransmitters by the nerve cells. Therefore, the action of Sibutramine is similar to that of anti-depressants that inhibit re-uptake of Serotonin such as Fluoxetine (Prozac), a medication that has been used for years without known association with pulmonary hypertension or heart valve damage.

Orlistat (Xenical, Alli) changes the metabolism of fat. This is a class of anti-obesity drugs called lipase inhibitors, or fat blockers. Fat from food can only be absorbed into the body after being broken up (a process called digestion) by digestive enzymes called lipases in the intestines. By inhibiting the action of lipase enzymes, orlistat prevents the intestinal absorption of fat by 30%. Orlistat does not affect brain chemistry. Theoretically, Orlistat also should have minimal or no systemic side effects (side effects in other parts of the body) because the major locale of action is inside the gut lumen and very little of the drug is absorbed.

Ephedrine is a central nervous system stimulant used to treat breathing problems (as a bronchodilator), nasal congestion (as a decongestant), low blood pressure problems (orthostatic hypotension), or myasthenia gravis.

Clenbuterol is a beta-2 adrenergic agonist with some similarities to ephedrine, but its effects are more potent and longer-lasting as a stimulant and thermogenic drug. Clenbuterol causes an increase in aerobic capacity, central nervous system stimulation, and an increase in blood pressure and oxygen transportation. Clenbuterol increases the rate at which fat and protein are metabolized, simultaneously slowing the body's BMR.

Albuterol is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

The thyronines act on nearly every cell in the body. Thyronines act to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis, help regulate long bone growth (synergy with growth hormone), neuronal maturation and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. The thyroid hormones are essential to proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. Thyroid hormones also regulate protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, affecting how human cells use energetic compounds. They also stimulate vitamin metabolism. Numerous physiological and pathological stimuli influence thyroid hormone synthesis.

Reductil is an orally administered agent for the treatment of obesity, as an appetite suppressant. Meridia is a centrally-acting serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor structurally related to amphetamines, although its mechanism of action is distinct.

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